^Phase difference between I & V

^Phase difference between I & V

When ac flows through a

(a) pure R, E & I are in phase i.e. Φ = 00

(b) pure L, I  lags E by 900 i.e. Φ = + 900

(d) C, I leads E by 900 i.e Φ = – 900

The value of f for other cases depends upon the nature of circuit elements and their combinations.

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